It sounds like a cross-up with Newsstand settings. Newsstand is going away soon, so I think the best approach is to edit the App ID on the Apple dev site to disable Newsstand. Then rebuild your mobileprovision files, which include the App ID settings. Then rebuild your app without Newsstand enabled, sign it with the new mobileprovision file, and see if that works.
1) Your device ID isn't in your mobile provision file
2) The certificate you used to sign isn't valid
Unfortunately iOS does not provide any useful error messages to figure out which of these two is the culprit. It's almost always the first one though because it's easy to miss the little checkbox next to the device ID when rebuilding the mobileprovision file (happens to me often).
As for Android, did you sign the app before attempting to install it?
Th fact that it won't launch and based on the screenshots, it looks like your device is not provisioned. That means your device is not listed in the certificate you used to sign the app. When you sign the app, the signed app contains this list inside it. So when you try and use that is not provisioned, it will not allow it to launch.
It is a bit deceiving when one sees the app icon on the springboard. So one thinks the app is installed and everything is OK. But when your device is not provisioned you can't go that one last step into launching the app.
Make sure your device is indeed provisioned. It it is you may have to re-build or re-download and re-sign the app.
The app icon missing is strange... Maybe go ahead and start the app again on the Dashboard, download it, and sign in it. Then try that new app.