cq:Template : A template is of node type cq:Template.
allowedChildren : Path of a template that is allowed to be a child of this template.
allowedParents : Path of a template that is allowed to be a parent of this template.
allowedPaths : Path of a page that is allowed to be based on this template.
Ranking : Rank of the template. Used to display the template in the User Interface.
CONTENT FRAGMENT TEMPLATES:
Templates are selected when creating a content fragment. They provide the new fragment with the basic structure, element(s) and variation. These templates are subjected under Granite Configuration Manager. You can refer this link on how to create Content Fragment Templates.
/conf/global/settings/dam/cfm/templates The location for instance-wide customer-specific templates that need to be changed at runtime.
ADAPTIVE TEMPLATE RENDERING:
Templates are generally built around a responsive grid, and pages created based on these templates are fully responsive, adjusting automatically to the viewport of the client device.
Using the Emulator toolbar in the page editor, authors can target layouts to specific devices.
It is also possible to set up templates to support adaptive rendering.
When device groups are properly configured, the page will be rendered with a different selector in the URL when selecting a device in the emulator mode. Using a selector a specific page rendering can be directly called via the URL. For More Information see here Adaptive Templates Rendering.
Can you also add a section in this summary to state the difference between Editable Template Vs Content Fragment VS Editable Fragment? I have seen many users getting confused in it. Though I have answered it in many different forms but it would be great if you can add that here.