That is quite a spreadsheet!
Although I'd need more details about what's actually being illustrated in your screenshot, from what you've described (including having tried the out of the box features), I'd suggest going one of two ways to improve efficiency.
If you "know" that this spreadsheet is the fastest way to keep up with your business changes, then keep it as the source, but add another tab to it in to our Excel Updater format, and whenever it changes, upload the spreadsheet to synchronize the data changes (e.g. dates and comments) into Workfront.
Alternatively, if you agree that it would be best to enter the data directly into Workfront, but "know" that this report is then the best way to communicate it (including the links), we could develop a Magic Report to your specification, which would then be always current, either on an executive dashboard or as a pdf.