This is hardly possible with ootb features. As already mentioned tags could be used, but I don't think that it can used to control the content filled in into text elements. You could use content fragments to manage variations of text, but it's still does not advise or control what text you enter. But if you have sections with the same text which should be used on many pages, content fragments are something definitely worth to look at.
I think one of the OOB solutions could be to use Tags functionality to achieve the same otherwise you could always build a custom solution per requirements. We can discuss the specific questions that you might have on each use case, in case you prefer to go down this path.