What I love about AEM from a developer point of view is using Java to write custom OSGi back-end services and JS technology to write custom front end components. For example -- using JQuery plugins. (then AEM authors can use your custom components when designing AEM web sites).
TO use JQuery -- you setup a client libs folder and properly setup the client JS files (we have plenty of articles that show how to do this).
Having said that -- to create a Caroursel that supports other type of data such as videos, all you do is get a JQuery plugin that supports videos. There are all sorts of these plug-ins. See this link for example:
Then follow this article and substitute the plugin. That is, make sure you place the new plugib JS file in the clientlibs folder and modify the AEM page component's JS logic (use the JS logic that corresponds to the plug-in you choose). Consult the documentation of the plugin that you use.
Your example is helpful but it shows the carousel with images only. What about videos, RTE etc since its been old days that carousel used to have just images. Can we have a carousel of components like adaptive-image, video, RTE etc. components?
The foundation Carousel component cannot do this. The general Carousel component is basically a list of pages that takes the image from the Page Properties of the page and outputs them into a Carousel.
You would have to create your own custom component to add your own videos/images/graphs/etc...