I am facing this weird issue where the maven build is successful but the content inside /apps,/etc, /conf doesn't gets installed. These are some of the use cases when this issue occurs:
1) Create a component in CRXde, export it to local filesystem using vlt up. Delete the component in CRXde. Do a maven build. No component present in CRXde. Although it is seen in the zip file created under target folder.
2) Checkout the project from git on a machine that doesn't have the project setup. Do a maven build. Only the folder structure will be seen in CRXde.
a) Create the project in your local using Lazybone and get the project installed in AEM instance
b) Now check in crxde AEM for the project created with required folders(like components,config,src,install,templates)
c) Now create the required components and templates using crxde.
d) Now using Eclipse Vault Plugin do vault import, so that all your components and templates gets synched up with local.
e) Now you can modify any component if needed in eclipse and do a lazy bone build and install to AEM.
I suspect the reason why you dont see components inside crxde is may be you are not including the components in filter.xml appropriately.I too had same kind of issue once and started using eclipse vault plugin which made life easy for synching to local and build back to AEM.