Yes, you can.
Step1: Think of an event at which you want to capture the data.
Step 2: On that event, call
guideBridge.getDataXML to retrieve the data. API reference Adobe Experience Manager Help | Prefill adaptive form fields
Step 3: Save the Data as XML
Step 4. Reload the form with the XML. Follow the steps mentioned at Adobe Experience Manager Help | Prefill adaptive form fields
Your data can be loaded from a local, server or even CRX as well. Even if you want to persist the complete state of the form you can do that as well.