It will be a complex Technical workflow, requires more efforts to write here. If you have bought the message center license from Adobe, then this comes as part of configuration from Adobe PS.
Here is the idea,
Message center execution instance supports soap web services just like any other Adobe campaign instance, and you can write a workflow to get data from execution instance for nms:rtEvent, nms:eventHisto and nms:broadLogMsg for communications sent from Executions instance
by executing query issuing soap querydef method.
Once you have this data, then you can look for the status in event history logs(nms:broadLogEventHisto) to check if that was sent or not?
Based on this status you an wrote a scheduled workflow for recycling the events.