Yes, use update activity with: Dimension to update: Address (nms) Operation type: delete
But please note that normally, new mailboxes full are considered as soft bounces during 5 days (by default) of a delivery sending attempts, then considered as hard bounces.
So if you delete them you could have some deliverability issues (being considered as spammer by ESP, Email Service Providers). So you need carefully exclude them from targetting, because the typology rule won't exclude them automatically from deliveries.
Yes, indeed, after deletion with the Update activity, you will be able to retarget these people with previously mailboxes full.
The same idea for doing this, that I forgot to mention, is to update/modify the status to be "Valid" so they won't be excluded from further deliveries. Then the nightly process manages them to cleanse. But eventually, it comes to be the same as pure deletion, more or less.
But again, by retargetting these people with previous mailboxes full, most of them would have not purged their malboxes (if given up), so take care to your deliverability/reputation score with the ESP, monitor it closely, and smooth your delivery with small waves.