While calculation of pageviews, does reloads/refresh is excluded from the pageviews metric. Because the definition of pageview says that: This metric counts all page view tracking calls (t()) in a report suite.
Yes, pageviews get incremented during reloads/refreshes, if those reloads/refreshes cause the s.t() script / Adobe Analytics Send Beacon action (if using Adobe Launch) to run again.
Yes, pageviews are measured in a similar way in both AA and GA, i.e. based on when the tracking call is run in the page.
AA has a metric called "Reloads". As the name suggests, this counts the number of pageviews that were actually reloads. So if you want to count the number of first pageviews, you can create a calculated metric of Pageviews - Reloads.
If page reload/ refresh is triggering Analytics beacon (s.t()) then this will definitely increment the pageviews metric. You can test this by manually reloading the page and checking the Analytics server call in browser's developer console. Try filtering Analytics' network calls by 'b/ss'.